Course Descriptions

The Arts

AVI1O Visual Arts, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course is exploratory in nature, offering an overview of visual arts as a foundation for further study. Students will become familiar with the elements and principles of design and the expressive qualities of various materials by using a range of media, processes, techniques, and styles. Students will use the creative and critical analysis processes and will interpret art within a personal, contemporary, and historical context.

AVI2O Visual Arts, Grade 10

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to develop their skills in producing and presenting art by introducing them to new ideas, materials, and processes for artistic exploration and experimentation. Students will apply the elements and principles of design when exploring the creative process. Students will use the critical analysis process to reflect on and interpret art within a personal, contemporary, and historical context.

AVI3M Visual Arts, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 9 or 10, Open
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to further develop their knowledge and skills in visual arts. Students will use the creative process to explore a wide range of themes through studio work that may include drawing, painting, sculpting, and printmaking, as well as the creation of collage, multimedia works, and works using emerging technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process when evaluating their own work and the work of others. The course may be delivered as a comprehensive program or through a program focused on a particular art form (e.g., photography, video, computer graphics, information design).

AWQ3M Photography, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 9 or 10, Open
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to further develop their knowledge and skills in visual arts. Students will use the creative process to explore a wide range of themes through studio work that may include drawing, painting, sculpting, and printmaking, as well as the creation of collage, multimedia works, and works using emerging technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process when evaluating their own work and the work of others. The course may be delivered as a comprehensive program or through a program focused on a particular art form (e.g., photography, video, computer graphics, information design).

AVI4M Visual Arts, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course focuses on enabling students to refine their use of the creative process when creating and presenting two- and three-dimensional art works using a variety of traditional and emerging media and technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process to deconstruct art works and explore connections between art and society. The studio program enables students to explore a range of materials, processes, and techniques that can be applied in their own art production. Students will also make connections between various works of art in personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural contexts.

AWQ4M, Photography, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Photography, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course focuses on enabling students to refine their use of the creative process when creating and presenting two- and three-dimensional art works using a variety of traditional and emerging media and technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process to deconstruct art works and explore connections between art and society. The studio program enables students to explore a range of materials, processes, and techniques that can be applied in their own art production. Students will also make connections between various works of art in personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural contexts.

Canadian and World Studies

CGC1D Issues in Canadian Geography, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course examines interrelationships within and between Canada’s natural and human systems and how these systems interconnect with those in other parts of the world. Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live.

CHC2D Canadian History Since World War I, Grade 10

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course explores social, economic, and political developments and events and their impact on the lives of different individuals, groups, and communities, including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit individuals and communities, in Canada since 1914. Students will examine the role of conflict and cooperation in Canadian society, Canada’s evolving role within the global community, and the impact of various individuals, organizations, and events on identities, citizenship, and heritage in Canada. Students will develop an understanding of some of the political developments and government policies that have had a lasting impact on First Nations, Métis, and Inuit individuals and communities. They will develop their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating key issues and events in Canadian history since 1914.

CHV2O Civics and Citizenship, Grade 10

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 0.5

This course explores rights and responsibilities associated with being an active citizen in a democratic society. Students will explore issues of civic importance such as healthy schools, community planning, environmental responsibility, and the influence of social media, while developing their understanding of the role of civic engagement and of political processes in the local, national, and/or global community. Students will apply the concepts of political thinking and the political inquiry process to investigate, and express informed opinions about, a range of political issues and developments that are both of significance in today’s world and of personal interest to them.

CHW3M World History to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Canadian History since World War I, Grade 10, Academic or Applied
Credit Value: 1.0

This course explores the history of various societies and civilizations around the world, from earliest times to around 1500 CE. Students will investigate a range of factors that contributed to the rise, success, and decline of various ancient and pre-modern societies throughout the world and will examine life in and the cultural and political legacy of these societies. Students will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating social, political, and economic structures and historical forces at work in various societies and in different historical eras.

CGW4U World Issues: A Geographic Analysis, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities
Credit Value: 1.0

In this course, students will address the challenge of creating a more sustainable and equitable world. They will explore issues involving a wide range of topics, including economic disparities, threats to the environment, globalization, human rights, and quality of life, and will analyse government policies, international agreements, and individual responsibilities relating to them. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including the use of spatial technologies, to investigate these complex issues and their impacts on natural and human communities around the world.

CLN4U Canadian and International Law, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities.
Credit Value: 1.0

This course explores a range of contemporary legal issues and how they are addressed in both Canadian and international law. Students will develop an understanding of the principles of Canadian and international law and of issues related to human rights and freedoms, conflict resolution, and criminal, environmental, and workplace law, both in Canada and internationally. Students will apply the concepts of legal thinking and the legal studies inquiry process, and will develop legal reasoning skills, when investigating these and other issues in both Canadian and international contexts.

CPW4U Canadian and International Politics, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities
Credit Value: 1.0

This course explores various perspectives on issues in Canadian and world politics. Students will explore political decision making and ways in which individuals, stakeholder groups, and various institutions, including governments, multinational corporations, and non-governmental organizations, respond to and work to address domestic and international issues. Students will apply the concepts of political thinking and the political inquiry process to investigate issues, events, and developments of national and international political importance, and to develop and communicate informed opinions about them.

Classical Studies and International Languages

LWIBD International Languages: Italian, Level 1

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides opportunities for students to begin to develop and apply skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing in the language of study. Students will communicate and interact in structured activities, with a focus on matters of personal interest and familiar topics, and will read and write simple texts in the language. Throughout the course, students will acquire an understanding and appreciation of diverse communities in regions of the world where the language is spoken. They will also develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

LWICU International Languages: Italian, Level 2

Prerequisite: International Languages: Italian, Level 1, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides opportunities for students to increase their competence and confidence in listening, speaking, reading, and writing in the language of study. Students will communicate about academic and personally relevant topics in increasingly spontaneous spoken interactions, and will develop their creative and critical thinking skills through exploring and responding to a variety of oral and written texts. Students will continue to enrich their understanding and appreciation of diverse communities in regions of the world where the language is spoken. They will also investigate personal and professional contexts in which knowledge of the language is required, and develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

LWIDU International Languages: Italian, Level 3

Prerequisite: International Languages: Italian, Level 2, University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides extended opportunities for students to communicate and interact in the language of study in a variety of social and academic contexts. Students will refine and enhance their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, as well as their creative and critical thinking skills, as they explore and respond to a variety of oral and written texts, including complex authentic and adapted texts. They will also broaden their understanding and appreciation of diverse communities where the language is spoken, and develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

English

ENG1D English, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course is designed to develop the oral communication, reading, writing, and media literacy skills that students need for success in their secondary school academic programs and in their daily lives. Students will analyse literary texts from contemporary and historical periods, interpret informational and graphic texts, and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on the use of strategies that contribute to effective communication. The course is intended to prepare students for the Grade 10 academic English course, which leads to university or college preparation courses in Grades 11 and 12.

ENG2D English, Grade 10

Prerequisite: English, Grade 9, Academic or Applied
Credit Value: 1.0

This course is designed to extend the range of oral communication, reading, writing, and media literacy skills that students need for success in their secondary school academic programs and in their daily lives. Students will analyse literary texts from contemporary and historical periods, interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts, and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on the selective use of strategies that contribute to effective communication. This course is intended to prepare students for the compulsory Grade 11 university or college preparation course.

ENG3U English, Grade 11

Prerequisite: English, Grade 10, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course emphasizes the development of literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyse challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures, as well as a range of informational and graphic texts, and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using language with precision and clarity and incorporating stylistic devices appropriately and effectively. The course is intended to prepare students for the compulsory Grade 12 university or college preparation course.

ENG4U English, Grade 12

Prerequisite: English, Grade 11, University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course emphasizes the consolidation of the literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyse a range of challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures; interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts; and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using academic language coherently and confidently, selecting the reading strategies best suited to particular texts and particular purposes for reading, and developing greater control in writing. The course is intended to prepare students for university, college, or the workplace.

French as a Second Language

FSF1D Core French, Grade 9

Prerequisite: Minimum of 600 hours of French instruction, or equivalent
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides opportunities for students to communicate and interact in French with increasing independence, with a focus on familiar topics related to their daily lives. Students will develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing by using language learning strategies introduced in the elementary Core French program, and will apply creative and critical thinking skills in various ways. They will also enhance their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

Guidance and Career Education

GLC2O Career Studies, Grade 10

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 0.5
 

This course teaches students how to develop and achieve personal goals for future learning, work, and community involvement. Students will assess their interests, skills, and characteristics and investigate current economic and workplace trends, work opportunities, and ways to search for work.The course explores postsecondary learning and career options, prepares students for managing work and life transitions, and helps students focus on their goals through the development of a career plan.

Health and Physical Education

PPL1O Healthy Active Living Education, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course equips students with the knowledge and skills they need to make healthy choices now and lead healthy, active lives in the future. Through participation in a wide range of physical activities, students develop knowledge and skills related to movement competence and personal fitness that provide a foundation for active living. Students also acquire an understanding of the factors and skills that contribute to healthy development and learn how their own well-being is affected by, and affects, the world around them. Students build their sense of self, learn to interact positively with others, and develop their ability to think critically and creatively.

Interdisciplinary Studies

IDC4U Italian Studies, Grade 12

Prerequisites: Any university or university/college preparation course
Credit Value: 1.0

This course will help students develop and consolidate the skills required for and knowledge of different subjects and disciplines to solve problems, make decisions, create personal meaning, and present findings beyond the scope of a single subject or discipline. Students will apply the principles and processes of inquiry and research to effectively use a range of print, electronic, and mass media resources; to analyse historical innovations and exemplary research; and to investigate real-life situations and career opportunities in interdisciplinary endeavours. They will also assess their own cognitive and affective strategies, apply general skills in both familiar and new contexts, create innovative products, and communicate new knowledge.

Mathematics

MPM1D Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to algebra, analytic geometry, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will investigate relationships, which they will then generalize as equations of lines, and will determine the connections between different representations of a linear relation. They will also explore relationships that emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

MPM2D Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10

Prerequisite: Grade 9 Mathematics, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to broaden their understanding of relationships and extend their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will explore quadratic relations and their applications; solve and apply linear systems; verify properties of geometric figures using analytic geometry; and investigate the trigonometry of right and acute triangles. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

MCR3U Functions, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course introduces the mathematical concept of the function by extending students’ experiences with linear and quadratic relations. Students will investigate properties of discrete and continuous functions, including trigonometric and exponential functions; represent functions numerically, algebraically, and graphically; solve problems involving applications of functions; investigate inverse functions; and develop facility in determining equivalent algebraic expressions. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.

MHF4U Advanced Functions, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Mathematics for College Technology, Grade 12, College Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.

MCV4U Calculus and Vectors, Grade 12

Prerequisite: The Advanced Functions course (MHF4U) must be taken prior to or concurrently with Calculus and Vectors (MCV4U).
Credit Value: 1.0

This course builds on students’ previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and algebraic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three-dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modelling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course.

MDM4U Mathematics of Data Management, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Functions and Applications, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course broadens students’ understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing and analysing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating investigation that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest.

Science

SNC1D Science, Grade 9

Prerequisite: None
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to develop their understanding of basic concepts in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, and to relate science to technology, society, and the environment. Throughout the course, students will develop their skills in the processes of scientific investigation. Students will acquire an understanding of scientific theories and conduct investigations related to sustainable ecosystems; atomic and molecular structures and the properties of elements and compounds; the study of the universe and its properties and components; and the principles of electricity.

SNC2D Science, Grade 10

Prerequisite: Science, Grade 9, Academic or Applied
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to enhance their understanding of concepts in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, and of the interrelationships between science, technology, society, and the environment. Students are also given opportunities to further develop their scientific investigation skills. Students will plan and conduct investigations and develop their understanding of scientific theories related to the connections between cells and systems in animals and plants; chemical reactions, with a particular focus on acid–base reactions; forces that affect climate and climate change; and the interaction of light and matter.

SBI3U Biology, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course furthers students’ understanding of the processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biodiversity; evolution; genetic processes; the structure and function of animals; and the anatomy, growth, and function of plants. The course focuses on the theoretical aspects of the topics under study, and helps students refine skills related to scientific investigation.

SCH3U Chemistry, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of the properties of chemicals and chemical bonds; chemical reactions and quantitative relationships in those reactions; solutions and solubility; and atmospheric chemistry and the behaviour of gases. Students will further develop their analytical skills and investigate the qualitative and quantitative properties of matter, as well as the impact of some common chemical reactions on society and the environment.

SPH3U Physics, Grade 11

Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic
Credit Value: 1.0

This course develops students’ understanding of the basic concepts of physics. Students will explore kinematics, with an emphasis on linear motion; different kinds of forces; energy transformations; the properties of mechanical waves and sound; and electricity and magnetism. They will enhance their scientific investigation skills as they test laws of physics. In addition, they will analyse the interrelationships between physics and technology, and consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.

SBI4U Biology, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Biology, Grade 11, University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.

SCH4U Chemistry, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter, energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems, and electrochemistry. Students will further develop their problem-solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment.

SPH4U Physics, Grade 12

Prerequisite: Physics, Grade 11, University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories. Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Students will also explore the wave nature of light, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyse, qualitatively and quantitatively, data related to a variety of physics concepts and principles. Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.

Social Sciences and Humanities

HSP3U Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology, Grade 11

Prerequisite: The Grade 10 academic course in English, or the Grade 10 academic history course (Canadian and world studies)
Credit Value: 1.0

This course provides students with opportunities to think critically about theories, questions, and issues related to anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Students will develop an understanding of the approaches and research methods used by social scientists. They will be given opportunities to explore theories from a variety of perspectives, to conduct social science research, and to become familiar with current thinking on a range of issues within the three disciplines.

HZT4U Philosophy: Questions and Theories Grade 12

Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies
Credit Value: 1.0

This course enables students to acquire an understanding of the nature of philosophy and philosophical reasoning skills and to develop and apply their knowledge and skills while exploring specialized branches of philosophy (the course will cover at least three of the following branches: metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, aesthetics).∗ Students will develop critical thinking and philosophical reasoning skills as they formulate and evaluate arguments related to a variety of philosophical questions and theories. They will also develop research and inquiry skills related to the study and practice of philosophy.